He suffers with a mood disorder. Bipolar 2. He has a history of mild manic episodes alternating with depression and the disorder is chemically controlled.
He has complained of recurrent low grade fevers and night sweats recently. He came in to my office stating his Babesia was relapsing.
He was right. The patient's blood smear confirmed the self diagnosis.
Some Lyme-literate people are quick to blame tickborne illness for everything - including all mental illness. It is easy to go overboard. Bipolar illness exists apart from tickborne disease in this case.
Babesia and other central nervous system infections may exacerbate preexisting mood disorders.
Lyme and associated infections have been associated with every neuropsychiatric syndrome reported. Clues that infection is not the primary cause include: strong family history and mood disorder predates Lyme infection.
Babesia is frequently associated with depression, especially increased tearfulness.
Babesiosis, the clinical syndrome associated with Babesia infection is frequently persistent, resistant to therapy and prone to relapse or recurrence. (Relapse same infection, recurrence new infection).
I have found multiple, simultaneous agents are needed. Antimalaria agents are added sequentially creating a "cocktail" in much the same manner Lyme is treated
A new study was released last week ( UCLA) which amazingly discussed a new paradigm. In the case of E. coli: perhaps it best to hit highly resistant superbugs with 3-4 antibiotics, which all work by different mechanisms rather than a single drug which works only by one.
Some agents include: Mepron, Malarone, artemisinin, artemisia (bioavailability), Coartem - more bioavailable, cryptolepis, "Buhner herbs" including sida acuta, Daraprim, Zithromax, Clindamycin, Quinine and low dose heparin.
For example, when Mepron doesn't do the job adequately it is not discontinued, rather something else is added. Patients may be on 3-4 agents simultaneously to get the job done.
We think human Babesia develop rapid resistance to various agents.
We don't know.There is no human data. Animal data supports the thesis.
The disease is underappreciated. I suspect if suffers with guilt by association (Lyme).
As with Lyme, most experts believe in acute Babesia, not chronic babesiosis.
The Babesia lifecycle is presented below. In mice the lifecycle is more interesting -- sexual reproduction. This allows for the transfer of genes from one organism to another. This is an evolutionary advantage RE the development of resistance.
In the human host the cells reproduce via an asexual process. The slides can look quite different at times. Most commonly small, dark staining round bodies are seen with Giemsa staining.
Resistance develops because random mutations -- mistakes made copying DNA -- occur with great regularity.
Sporozoites are released from an infected red blood cell. The small forms attach to the cells and gain entry morphing into the larger merozoites. The merozoites divide in cells, rarely 2 at a time (Maltese Cross). The red cells rupture and the cycle repeats.
Additional information: sporozoites morph into an intermediary ring form, trophozoite before becoming a merozoite. Ring form are readily observed. Mature merozoites can rupture creating vermicules, small infective particles. These are harder to pick out. Intermediary morphological forms can present in many ways.