1999- Annals of Medicine, 31(3):225-32
32 of 165 patients treated with 3 months of antibiotics had culture or PCR evidence of he live spirochetes in 40% of patients who relapsed. The authors concluded:
"We conclude that the treatment of Lyme Borreliosis with appropriate antibiotics for even more than 3 months may not always eradicate the sprirochetes."
1998- Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 57(2):118-21
Detection of Borrelia burdorferi by PCR in the synovial membrane, but not the synovial fluid from patients with persiting Lyme arthritis after antibiotic therapy.
1997- American College of Rheurmatology, Voll 40(9) Suppl, Sept,p.S270
PCR evidence for Borrelia burdorferi DNA in synovium in absence of positive serology.
1996- Infection,24(3):218-26 Formation and cultivation of Borrelia spheroblast L-forms variants. "The persistence of Bb even after therapy with antbiotics has been demonstrated in cerebral spinal fluid, in skin, iris, heart and joint biopsies." The authors suggest that atypical forms may allow Borrelia to survive antibiotic treatment.
1993- Arthritis and Rheumatism,36(11):1621-8 Persistence of Borrelia burdorferi in ligamentous tissue from a patient with chronic Lyme borreliosis.
1993- Clinical Orthopedics, 297:238-41 Chronic septic arthritis causes by Bb.
1993- Neurology, 43(12):2705-7 Stroke due to Lyme disease
1989- Survival of Borrelia burdorferi an antibiotically treated patients with Lyme Borreliosis
"...it has become questionalbe if a definite eradication of Bb with antibiotics is possible."
1993- JAMA,(270):1369. SERONEGATIVE LYME DISEASE (Steere AC.)
"THERE IS LITTLE QUESTION THAT SERONEGATIVE LYME CAN EXIST."
LymeMD- Germantown, Maryland 2008- non published. Persistent Lyme in synovial fluid.
A patient with disseminated Lyme disease including neuroborreliosis, who had received more than 2 years of antibiotics, including 2 courses of IV antibiotics, had a positive Lyme PCR of synovial fluid aspirated from knee.
Clinical Immunology- Textbook- 2008- Page 390 "Only a few intracellular bacteria, such as L. monocytogenes, are sterily eradicated once the immune response has reached its height. More often, the intracellular habitat provides a protective niche that promotes persistent infection in the face of an ongoing immune response."